Teaching and Learning



Indigenous Cultural Competency in Teaching and Learning:
Guiding Principles

National Stocktake

The National Stocktake of  Indigenous Cultural Competency in Australian Universities survey contained three questions of direct relevance to the scope of the National Best Practice Framework for Indigenous Cultural Competency in Australian Universities. The three questions were:

  • Is Indigenous cultural competency embedded as graduate attributes in specific courses or on a University-wide basis?
      
  • Are Indigenous perspectives routinely included in the curriculum development process?
      
  • Does teaching staff receiving training in Indigenous pedagogy for Indigenous students?

The Stocktake responses submitted by each of the institutions clearly demonstrate that significant advances are being made across the sector in relation to teaching and learning. Many examples exist of good practice or innovation which enhance the National Best Practice Framework and its supporting resources.

Teaching and Learning: Summary of Findings

A total of four institutions have graduate attributes specifically related to Indigenous cultural competency, with the University of South Australia having a total of three which are implemented on a university wide basis. Two institutions are currently in the process of developing a graduate attribute for implementation across all Faculties and a further nine institutions have a non-specific graduate attribute related to either ‘cultural diversity’, ‘cultural intelligence’ or ‘social justice’. A total of nine universities have no graduate attribute related to Indigenous cultural competency (Appendix 5a).

The University of South Australia and Charles Sturt University have policies in place requiring the incorporation of Indigenous perspectives into the curriculum of all undergraduate programs and a pedagogical framework to guide curriculum development and knowledge assessment. Griffith, Charles Darwin and James Cook Universities are currently developing strategies to ensure that Indigenous perspectives are routinely included in the curriculum development process, including investigating policy development in this area similar to that implemented at the University of South Australia and Charles Sturt University. Approximately half of the institutions responded that their programs routinely included Indigenous perspectives in disciplines such as Medicine, Law, Business, Social Work, Psychology, Arts and Education, while a total of ten institutions responded that they do not include Indigenous knowledges and perspectives on a routine basis. Charles Sturt University has established an Indigenous Board of Studies as the formal quality assurance and approval body for Indigenous Australian content incorporated into its programs and subjects (Appendix 5b).

With the exception of one institution, the training of teaching staff in Indigenous pedagogy for Indigenous students (or effective pedagogies for teaching Indigenous Studies effectively) is either not provided at all or provided in the form of cultural awareness training ‘upon request’, with little evidence of policy or framework (Appendix 5c) . 

Current exemplars of good practice

Inclusive Teaching and Learning Frameworks

Example 1. The university implemented a policy in 2004 requiring the incorporation of Indigenous content into its undergraduate programs by 2010, with a pedagogical framework to guide the development of curricula and appropriate fields included in the five-year program review reporting templates. Program Approval processes also require reporting of details of where and how Indigenous perspectives are included in the curriculum. This is expressly built into Program Approval templates along with verification details.

Whilst the university has not achieved its goal of incorporation of Indigenous perspectives into all its undergraduate programs by 2010 which may suggest insufficient timeframe allowed for implementation, it has achieved an incorporation rate of 61% which is commendable.
See: http://www.unisa.edu.au/ducier/icup/default.asp

Example 2: Similar to the University of South Australia, Charles Sturt University implemented policy at the end of 2008 requiring the incorporation of Indigenous content into all onshore undergraduate programs by 2015. The university has a pedagogical framework for curriculum development and knowledge assessment and is currently in the process of developing a graduate attribute and program reporting templates. The university has established an Indigenous Board of Studies as the formal approval and quality assurance body for Indigenous content to ensure cultural appropriateness and accountability. It has recently implemented policy requiring all staff to undergo cultural competency training, including, for academic staff, training in pedagogies for teaching Indigenous students and Indigenous Studies content effectively. CSU has an Indigenous Curriculum and Pedagogy Coordinator to work with Schools and Faculties on the incorporation of Indigenous perspectives and knowledges.

Example 3: Curtin University of Technology is currently developing a framework for cultural competent curricula within the university. The Mooditj Katitjiny: Indigenising the Curriculum Project at the Centre for Aboriginal Studies is one of the key initiatives of the university’s Reconciliation Action Plan, and uses a cultural competency model informed by the work done at the University of South Australia. The project has developed a matrix from cultural awareness to cultural competency along one axis and from knowledge to skills along the other.
See: http://karda.curtin.edu.au/home/

Example 4: Griffith University is developing a Whole-of-University approach to inclusive Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education.  The goals of this initiative include:

  • To develop a culturally appropriate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander curriculum this is inclusive of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies, knowledges and perspectives, and to support its sensitive implementation in degree programs.
      
  • To design culturally sensitive learning and teaching strategies and to train, develop and support academic staff in their use.
      
  • To establish culturally appropriate protocols and curriculum to encourage and support the conduct of research related to, or involving Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Island communities by staff and students.

See: http://www.griffith.edu.au/about-griffith/aboriginal-torres-strait-islander-first-peoples

Example 5:The University of Southern Queensland undertook a two year Indigenising the Curriculum project across its five faculties from 2006-08 under the auspices of the Learning and Teaching Support Unit. The initial focus was on professional development for staff to recognise the importance of Indigenous content and to understand how it could be incorporated appropriately in teaching and learning and the provision of related web-based resources.
See: http://www.usq.edu.au/learnteach/topics/Indig

Example 6. James Cook University is currently working towards embedding Indigenous Perspectives in the Curriculum across the university. Faculty of Arts, Education and Social Sciences incorporating the School of Indigenous Australian Studies (FAESS) has a policy where every student enrolled in a degree course within the faculty must complete at least one Indigenous subject taught by an Indigenous lecturer. The SIAS has been engaged by many disciplines to be a key partner in their initiatives around curriculum. Furthermore, the Faculty of Medicine, Health and Molecular Science(FMHMS) has established strong foundations for the inclusion of Indigenous perspectives in the development and delivery of curriculum, specifically in Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing and the allied health programs. The Faculty of Law, Business and Creative Arts (FLBCA) is currently undertaking a “Curriculum Refresh” project to address similar initiatives, whilst the Faculty of Science, Engineering and Information Technology (FSEIT) commenced their exploration of this agenda. JCU has operational performance targets enhancing the curriculum focus and distinctiveness of our programs as they relate to the tropics and the communities (including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities). Such initiatives are establishing clear mandates for all programs to consider the Indigenous content of their courses and competency of their graduates in relation to working cross-culturally and in partnership with Indigenous communities.

Inclusion of Training for Academic Staff in Indigenous Pedagogy

Example 1. Charles Sturt University has introduced a requirement that all staff undertake formal (and assessable) Indigenous Cultural Competency training which includes for academic staff, peer review in learning and teaching, including strategies and protocols for effective teaching of and engagement with Indigenous students. CSU has a comprehensive curriculum guidelines website to support this professional development in relation to effective methods for teaching Indigenous students and incorporating Indigenous content and resources into subjects and professional programs in a pedagogically sound way. CSU is has also implemented (or in process of) the following recommendations of its Indigenous Education Strategy to further support this:

Recommendation 23:The Education for Practice Institute be provided with two additional fellowships each year to work in collaboration with the Centre for Indigenous Studies on the scholarship of cultural competence for the professions.  One of the two fellowships be a designated fellowship for an Indigenous Australian academic.

Recommendation 24:The new Division of Teaching and Learning Support receive additional funding to create an identified Indigenous Australian Position, to provide educational design support to academics in the Centre for Indigenous Studies and the Faculties that teach Indigenous Australian content.  The Indigenous Educational Designer will develop expertise in the Cultural Competency Pedagogical Framework as well as instructional design and the development of high quality learning materials that may be able to be used across Faculties and Schools that teach Australian Indigenous content.

Recommendation 25:Staff teaching Indigenous Australian Studies at CSU, including hybrid and discipline specific subjects, are supported by A Cultural Competence Pedagogy Network (akin PEN, the Professional Experience Network) 

Recommendation 26:The Centre for Indigenous Studies, Faculties and the Education for Practice Institute develop a Scholarship of Teaching & Learning Project which would provide for an on-going examination of the process of incorporating Indigenous content into undergraduate professional programs across the University.

Recommendation 20:Charles Sturt University to appoint an Indigenous Curriculum and Pedagogy Coordinator located within the Division of Teaching and Learning Support to provide educational design support and advice to Faculties and Schools on the incorporation of Indigenous Australian content 

Recommendation 21:Academic staff who teach Indigenous Australian content are expected to hold qualifications in Indigenous Studies or a relevant discipline. Staff without qualifications or equivalent expertise and experience will be encouraged to gain qualifications or participate in professional learning programs provided by the Centre for Indigenous Studies.

Example 2. Griffith University Academics currently receive professional development on supporting students from diverse backgrounds, including awareness of and respect for the values and knowledges of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander First Peoples. Advice is given to academic staff on Indigenisation of the curriculum and appropriate pedagogical approaches for embedding Indigenous perspectives into the curriculum.

Example 3. The Ngarara Willim Centre of RMIT contributes to a number of professional development training workshops for staff including Understanding Indigenous Perspectives, Teaching Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students, Understanding Names and Different Cultures, and Supporting Student Transition, particularly for staff who teach Indigenous students.

Inclusion of an Indigenous Australian Graduate Attribute

Example 1. The University of South Australia has specific Indigenous Indicators are in place for three of the seven University of South Australia Graduate Qualities.

Graduate Quality OneA graduate of the University of South Australia operates effectively with and upon a body of knowledge of sufficient depth to begin professional practice

Graduate Quality FiveA graduate of the University of South Australia is committed to ethical action and social responsibility as a professional and as a citizen

Graduate Quality SixA graduate of the University of South Australia communicates effectively in professional practice and as a member of the community.

Program teams are required to advise which courses develop specific Graduate Qualities and this information is contained in Course information booklets.
See: http://www.unisa.edu.au/gradquals/default.asp

Example 2. Griffith University has recently completed an 18-month review of its Graduate Attributes. This review has sought input from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Working Party and Reference Group, and incorporated a generic attribute relating specifically to Indigenous cultural competence:

“Awareness of and respect for the values and knowledges of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander First Peoples”

The Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic) has given an undertaking to review these Griffith Graduate Attributes in 3 years, at which point further attention will be given to incorporating specific graduate attributes relevant to the development of Indigenous cultural competence.

Example 3. The University of Western Sydney has an Indigenous Australian Graduate Attribute titled ‘Indigenous Australian Knowledge’. The graduate attribute encompasses: 

  • knowledge base: appreciates the culture, experiences and achievements of Indigenous Australians, thereby encouraging an Australian identity inclusive of Indigenous Australians.
      
  • communication: communicates ethically and effectively within Indigenous Australian contexts.
      
  • social and cultural - understands and engages effectively with the culturally and socially diverse world in which they live and will work.
      
  • leadership and partnership - understands the circumstances and needs of Indigenous Australians, thereby encouraging responsibility in raising the standard of professional service delivery to Indigenous Australians; possess a capacity to engage and partner with Indigenous Australians.

See: http://policies.uws.edu.au/download.php?id=189

Example 4. Knowledge and appreciation of Indigenous cultures is incorporated into Attribute Seven of the University of New England’s Graduate Attributes. Attribute 7: Social responsibility:

  • demonstrate ethical action and social responsibility in your personal, professional and community lives;
      
  • demonstrate respect for, and acknowledgement of, ideas and knowledge of others acknowledge the social and ethical implications of your actions;
      
  • appreciate the impact of social change;
      
  • recognise social justice issues relevant to your discipline and professional area;
      
  • understand the international implications of local decisions and the local implications of international decisions;
      
  • appreciate the importance of sustainable development;
      
  • appreciate Indigenous culture and history; and
      
  • identify occupational risk and apply duty of care principles.

See: http://www.une.edu.au/policies/pdf/graduateattributes.pdf

Example 5. Whilst attuned to cultural diversity, one of the University of Melbourne’s five graduate attributes makes specific reference to Indigenous cultural competency:

  • value different cultures;
      
  • be well-informed citizens able to contribute to their communities wherever they choose to live and work;
      
  • have an understanding of the social and cultural diversity in our community; and
      
  • respect Indigenous knowledge, cultures and values.

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International Stocktake

The National Stocktake of Indigenous Cultural Competency in Australian Universities survey contained three questions of direct relevance to the scope of the National Best Practice Framework for Indigenous Cultural Competency in Australian Universities. These questions guided the focus of the web-based search of international university websites. The three questions were:

  • Is Indigenous cultural competency embedded as graduate attributes in specific courses or on a University-wide basis?
      
  • Are Indigenous perspectives routinely included in the curriculum development process?
      
  • Does teaching staff receiving training in Indigenous pedagogy for Indigenous students?

Due to a lack of information presented on a number of the surveyed university websites, particularly in the United States, it was not possible to find detail and specific examples of practice concerning each of these questions.

Summary of Findings

Whilst the web-based survey did not reveal any institutions requiring the inclusion of university-wide indigenous graduate attributes, it was evident that indigenous knowledges and perspectives were routinely included in the curricula of a number of disciplines including health, education, social work and psychology, land and environment, heritage, journalism and law. Staff at many of the institutions investigated are supported in the teaching and development of curricula through professional development opportunities and the provision of various cultural and other resources. Where information was available, all institutions had established mechanisms and strategies for enabling and supporting the academic success of indigenous students in culturally respectful ways.

The selection of examples presented below are presented in no particular order. They demonstrate how a university may implement elements of Indigenous cultural competency within the domain of teaching and learning.

Current exemplars of good practice

Example 1. Universities in Alaska have adopted a set of Cultural Standards Curriculum Design Indicators which contain cultural competence pedagogical principles to guide the development and delivery of subjects and programs within the Alaskan higher education sector. The Cultural Standards Curriculum Design Indicators include:

1. An Indigenous oriented curriculum reinforces the integrity of the cultural knowledge that students bring with them. A curriculum that meets this standard:

  • recognizes that all knowledge is imbedded in a larger system of cultural beliefs, values and practices, each with its own integrity and interconnectedness;
      
  • insures that students acquire not only the surface knowledge of their culture, but are also well grounded in the deeper aspects of the associated beliefs and practices;
      
  • incorporates contemporary adaptations along with the historical and traditional aspects of the local culture;
      
  • respects and validates knowledge that has been derived from a variety of cultural traditions;
      
  • provides opportunities for students to study all subjects starting from a base in their own knowledge system.

2. An Indigenous oriented curriculum recongnises cultural knowedge as a part of a living and constantly adapting system that is grounded in the past, but continues to grow through the present and into the future. A curriculum that meets this standard: recognizes the contemporary validity of much of the traditional cultural knowledge, values and beliefs, and grounds students learning in the principles and practices associated with that knowledge

  • provides students with an understanding of the dynamics of cultural systems as they change over time, and as they are impacted by external forces;
      
  • incorporates the in-depth study of unique elements of contemporary life in Indigenous communities, such as the protection of land rights, subsistence, sovereignty and self-determination.

3. An Indigenous oriented curriculum uses the local language and cultural knowledge as a foundation for the rest of the curriculum. A curriculum that meets this standard:

  • utilizes the local language as a base from which to learn the deeper meanings of the local cultural knowledge, values, beliefs and practices;
      
  • recognizes the depth of knowledge that is associated with the long inhabitation of a particular place and utilizes the study of “place” as a basis for the comparative analysis of contemporary social, political and economic systems;
      
  • incorporates language and cultural immersion experiences wherever in-depth cultural understanding is necessary;
      
  • views all community members as potential teachers and all events in the community as potential learning opportunities;
      
  • treats local cultural knowledge as a means to acquire the conventional curriculum content as outlined in state standards, as well as an end in itself;
      
  • makes appropriate use of modern tools and technology to help document and transmit traditional cultural knowledge;
      
  • is sensitive to traditional cultural protocol, including role of spirituality, as it relates to appropriate uses of local knowledge.

4. An Indigenous oriented curriculum fosters a complementary relationship across knowledge derived from diverse knowledge systems. A curriculum that meets this standard:

  • draws parallels between knowledge derived from oral tradition and that derived from books engages students in the construction of new knowledge and understandings that contribute to an ever-expanding view of the world.

5. An Indigenous oriented curriculum situates local knowledge and actions in a global context. A curriculum that meets this standard:

  • encourages students to consider the inter-relationship between their local circumstances and the global community;
      
  • conveys to students that every culture and community contributes to, at the same time that it receives from the global knowledge base;
      
  • incorporates the educational principles outlined in the Coolongatta Statement on Indigenous Rights in Education (National Association of Indigenous Institutes of Higher Learning 2007 pp.13-15).

Example 2. University of Lethbridge, Canada, has enshrined a  Commitment to Intercultural Learning. The university requires  the knowledge and perspectives of First Nation, Métis and Inuit peoples to be incorporated into First Nations Lesson Plans. Academic staff are supported through training and two major websites have been established to aid staff in the development of curricula and effective indigenous pedagogies.
See: http://people.uleth.ca/~am.bright/constructivist.htm - Constructivist Learning and First Nations Content
See: http://people.uleth.ca/~am.bright/index.html - A Commitment to Intercultural Learning (Website for academics including appropriate content and pedagogy)

Example 3. The Mi’kmaq-Maliseet Institute at the University of New Brunswick, Canada, provides a number of indigenous academic programs.  The Institute provides variety of other services to support and encourage the incorporation of indigenous knowledges and perspectives across the university, including curriculum development for schools, research and publication in the fields of Maliseet and Mi’kmaq languages, First Nations education, First Nations children’s literature, and history.  The Institute also maintains the Mi’kmaq-Maliseet Resource Collection, which provides a wide body of resources on culture, history, language, and current issues to support staff and students.
See: http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/education/mmi/about/services.html

Example 4. University of British Columbia has the only dedicated Indigenous university library in Canada. The Xwi7xwa Library is housed at eastern end of the traditional Longhouse that reflects the pit house architecture of interior UBC communities of British Columbia. The library provides a range of services to university staff involved in the development of indigenous curricula and has a broad collection of resources to support teaching. The university offers a number of indigenous academic programs and subjects specifically addressing Aboriginal topics. The university’s Aboriginal Programs and Services provides advice and guidance to academic staff across the institution on culturally appropriate curriculum and pedagogy, as well as providing culturally appropriate services and support to First Nations, Metis and Inuit students by promoting access, providing capacity building opportunities and celebrating their success.
See: http://aboriginal.ubc.ca/programs/ - This site lists all courses with Indigenous content offered by the university
See: http://www.ubc.ca/okanagan/students/aboriginal/welcome.html - Aboriginal Programs and Services.
See: http://aboriginal.ubc.ca/longhouse/xwi7xwa-library/ - Xwi7xwa Library

Example 5. The University of Saskatchewan has implemented a number of initiatives to improve access and outcomes for Saskatchewan peoples and support and acknowledge good teaching practices which reflect the mission of the university’s Gwenna MossCentre for Teaching Effectiveness. The six commitments embedded within the MossCentre mission relate to the priority areas associated with enhancing indigenous access to and experience of higher education are:

  1. enhancing the teacher-learner experience
  2. achieving innovation in programs, including engagement of students in research and discovery
  3. engagement of students in community-based learning in Saskatchewan and Canada, and engagement of students in international and global learning
  4. developing a diverse body of students
  5. expanding retention strategies and initiatives
  6. fostering Aboriginal engagement; and improving the campus environment for students.

The University of Saskatchewan runs an Aboriginal First Year Experience Program (AFYEP) which is open to all aboriginal students who have been accepted into the university. The goal of the program is to support students in all undergraduate first year programs and to encourage students to consider all academic options on campus. AFYEP is based in the College of Arts and Science and provides a gateway to programs available within the college and other professional colleges and schools. The main purpose of the program is to foster a sense of community among aboriginal students on campus. The Aboriginal First Year Experience Program helps to create a critical mass of aboriginal students in selected courses required for degrees in the professional colleges and for success in the College of Arts and Science. AFYEP recognizes aboriginal students’ desire to access programs and courses on campus that offer support specifically for Aboriginal Peoples.

To improve access to higher education within a broad range of discipline areas, the University of Saskatchewan has implemented the Summer University Transition Program for Aboriginal Students which includes a broad range of Summer Schools including:

  • Mathematics and Science Enrichment Program  
  • Aboriginal Public Administration
  • Aboriginal Teacher Education Programs
  • Aboriginal Justice & Criminology
  • Indigenous Peoples & Justice Program
  • Aboriginal Business Education Programs.

The University of Saskatchewan has several societies and centres that focus on aboriginal students or aboriginal cultures and learning, including:

  • The Aboriginal Students' Centre which facilitates and promotes aboriginal student achievement and strives to build a positive, successful educational experience for aboriginal students.The Centre provides a range of services including academic support, social events, community liaison, career networking, Elders service and advice and counselling.
      
  • The Rawlco Resource Centre of the University’s Edwards School of Business is the only dedicated space for aboriginal students in business schools within the higher education sector of Canada. Students use this centre for studying, group project work and research. The Aboriginal Business Students Society within the School of Business supports and enhances positive awareness of aboriginal business issues across the institution and broader community while building strong relationships between the aboriginal business community and students of Saskatchewan.
      
  • The University of Saskatchewan’s Native Law Centre of Canada facilitates access to legal education for Aboriginal Peoples, promotes the development of the law and the legal system in Canada, accommodates the advancement of Aboriginal Peoples and communities, and disseminates information concerning Aboriginal Peoples and the law. Similarly, the university’s Department of Native Studies offers programs that affirm the value and dignity of aboriginal societies, including their histories, languages, philosophies, oral literature and traditions.

The University of Saskatchewan also has a Provost's Award for Excellence in Aboriginal Education which annually recognises academic staff who makes an exceptional contribution to Aboriginal Learning at the University of Saskatchewan. There are three primary awards related to:  teaching aboriginal students,  teaching about aboriginal perspectives and leadership in aboriginal education.
See: http://explore.usask.ca/programs/ar/AFYEP - The Aboriginal First Year Experience Program
See: http://explore.usask.ca/programs/ar/AFYEP - Summer University Transition Program for Aboriginal Students
See: http://explore.usask.ca/aboriginal/centres/  - Aboriginal Centres
See: http://www.usask.ca/gmcte/drupal/?q=node/483 - Provost's Award for Excellence in Aboriginal Education
See: http://www.usask.ca/gmcte/drupal/?q=mission – Mission of the The Gwenna MossCentre for Teaching Effectiveness

Example 6. University of Regina in Canada has established a comprehensive Aboriginal Perspectives web site to aid academic staff in the development of culturally appropriate curricula and its delivery. The university has used video material featuring aboriginal people as a base for constructing teaching resources.

The University’s Aboriginal Student Centre provides a range of programs and services to aboriginal students including:

  • CIBC kâspohtamâtotân Aboriginal Mentorship Program
  • Nitôncipâmin omâ ("We are Here") Student Success Program
  • Cultural Awareness such as: Crafts, Pipe Ceremonies, Sharing Circles and Support from Cultural/Traditional Advisors
  • Rediscovering the Path - Elders from across Saskatchewan visit to share their knowledge of traditional teachings with students
  • Seminars designed to help students succeed in University

See: http://www.uregina.ca/asc/ - Student Success Program
See: http://www.uregina.ca/asc - Aboriginal Student Centre
See: http://www.uregina.ca/ctl/assets/files/aboriginal_perspectives_on_teaching_and_learning.pdf  - Aboriginal Perspectives on Teaching and Learning

Example 7. The University of Auckland well established Tuākana affiliated tutoring and mentoring programs which operate in all faculties of the university. These programs are designed to assist Māori and Pasifika students achieve the best possible outcomes in their education and are delivered via tutorials, workshops, study groups and one-on-one sessions with tutors and mentors.
See: http://www.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/home/about/Māori-at-the-university/ma-student-services-and-support - Support for Māori students
See: http://www.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/home/about/Māori-at-the-university/ma-resources - Collection of resources for Māori students
See: http://www.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/home/for/current-students/cs-career-planning/career-resources-groups/Māori-career-resources
See: http://www.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/home/about/eo-equity-office/eo-tuakana - about Tuākana

Example 8. In 1999, the Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand established Te Rōpū Āwhina whānau or Māori learning centres within the Faculties of Science, Engineering, Architecture and Design to increase and support the number of graduating Māori and Pacific scientists, technologists, engineers, architects and designers to contribute to Māori and Pacific community development and leadership.
See: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/st_services/kaiwawao/ - Māori Student Services Adviser
See: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/home/viclife/studentservice/Māoristudentsupport.aspx#support – Māori student support documents and information
See: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/science/Awhina/index.php - Te Rōpū Āwhina whānau
See: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/mai/funding.html - funding opportunities for post-grad students
See: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/home/prospective/future-students.aspx#Māori – resources for prospective Māori students

Example 9. The University of Boston in the United States incorporates the American Indian Students College Horizons which is a non-profit organization that supports the higher education of Native American students by providing pre-college (College Horizons) and pre-graduate (Graduate Horizons) summer programs. These programs are open to Native American, Alaskan Native, and Native Hawaiian high school and college students and/or graduates from across the United States. The mission of the university and College Horizons is to encourage and facilitate the access to higher education of indigenous peoples and their successful graduation from a broad range of disciplines.

See:  http://management.bu.edu/admissions/life/diversity/minority/indian.html - American Indian Students College Horizons

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